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Parasitol Res. 2011 Apr;108(4):899-904. doi: 10.1007/s00436-010-2131-4. Epub 2010 Nov 19.

Comparison of the tick repellent efficacy of chemical and biological products originating from Europe and the USA.

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Department Zoology, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.


The present paper investigates the efficacy of common anti-tick repellents in Europe and in the USA. There were tested Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor reticulatus, and Rhipcephalus sanguineus when they are placed onto hands and clothes of male and female humans being treated with common tick repellents. It was seen that DEET needed high concentrations to repel ticks, while essential oils are mostly inefficient. On the other hand saltidin=icaridin, p-menthan-diol and IR 3535 showed long-lasting effects, which in the case of combinations of saltidin and Vitex extracts were even increased.

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