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PLoS One. 2010 Nov 4;5(11):e15421. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015421.

TXNL6 is a novel oxidative stress-induced reducing system for methionine sulfoxide reductase a repair of α-crystallin and cytochrome C in the eye lens.

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Biomedical Sciences Department, Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida, United States of America.


A key feature of many age-related diseases is the oxidative stress-induced accumulation of protein methionine sulfoxide (PMSO) which causes lost protein function and cell death. Proteins whose functions are lost upon PMSO formation can be repaired by the enzyme methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA) which is a key regulator of longevity. One disease intimately associated with PMSO formation and loss of MsrA activity is age-related human cataract. PMSO levels increase in the eye lens upon aging and in age-related human cataract as much as 70% of total lens protein is converted to PMSO. MsrA is required for lens cell maintenance, defense against oxidative stress damage, mitochondrial function and prevention of lens cataract formation. Essential for MsrA action in the lens and other tissues is the availability of a reducing system sufficient to catalytically regenerate active MsrA. To date, the lens reducing system(s) required for MsrA activity has not been defined. Here, we provide evidence that a novel thioredoxin-like protein called thioredoxin-like 6 (TXNL6) can serve as a reducing system for MsrA repair of the essential lens chaperone α-crystallin/sHSP and mitochondrial cytochrome c. We also show that TXNL6 is induced at high levels in human lens epithelial cells exposed to H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress. Collectively, these data suggest a critical role for TXNL6 in MsrA repair of essential lens proteins under oxidative stress conditions and that TXNL6 is important for MsrA defense protection against cataract. They also suggest that MsrA uses multiple reducing systems for its repair activity that may augment its function under different cellular conditions.

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