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Adv Microb Physiol. 2010;57:119-44. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-381045-8.00003-5.

Regulation of CtsR activity in low GC, Gram+ bacteria.

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Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald, Institute of Microbiology, Greifswald, Germany.


CtsR is the global transcriptional regulator of the core protein quality networks in low GC, Gram+ bacteria. Balancing these networks during environmental stress is of considerable importance for moderate survival of the bacteria, and also for virulence of pathogenic species. Therefore, inactivation of the CtsR repressor is one of the major cellular responses for fast and efficient adaptation to different protein stress conditions. Historically, CtsR inactivation was mainly studied for the heat stress response, and recently it has been shown that CtsR is an intrinsic thermosensor. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that CtsR degradation is regulated by a two-step mechanism during heat stress, dependent on the arginine kinase activity of McsB. Interestingly, CtsR is also inactivated during oxidative stress, but by a thiol-dependent regulatory pathway. These observations suggest that dual activity control of CtsR activity has developed during the course of evolution.

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