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Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2010;95:55-94. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-385071-3.00004-6.

Chromosomal aberrations in solid tumors.

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  • 1Michigan Center for Translational Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Abstract

Ever since the identification of the exact number of human chromosomes in 1956, several cancer-specific chromosomal abnormalities have been identified in different tumors. Among the various genetic changes, such as alterations in oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and microRNA genes, recurrent chromosome translocations have been identified as an important class of mutations in hematological malignancies, soft tissue sarcomas, and more recently in prostate cancer and lung cancer. Recurrent gene fusions are used for cancer classification and as diagnostic markers, and some have been successfully targeted for drug development. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technology and the ambitious undertaking of "The Cancer Genome Atlas" (TCGA) project will help drive the identification of the underlying genetic aberrations in most of the solid cancers. This chapter presents an overview on the current status of the knowledge on chromosome aberrations in solid cancers, cytogenetic and noncytogenetic methods for the characterization of changes at the DNA and RNA levels, technological advancements in high-throughput characterization of the cancer genome and transcriptome, and the current understanding of the molecular mechanism involved in the formation of gene fusions in solid cancer.

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