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Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract. 2011 Jan;14(1):61-80. doi: 10.1016/j.cvex.2010.09.011.

Avian analgesia.

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Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, 2108 Tupper Hall, Davis, CA 95616, USA.


Avian analgesia is now recognized as a critical component of avian medicine and surgery. The need to recognize pain and to provide pain relief is the first step, and many anecdotal therapeutic doses have been extrapolated from other companion animals. Several published research investigations, using several species of birds, have begun to provide avian analgesia therapeutic information for clinical application. The challenge is to continue pushing this research forward with appreciation that there are approximately 10,000 known species of birds, perhaps 200 species commonly kept as pets, and that each species has a range of behaviors as varied as their species-specific PKs and PDs to each analgesic drug.

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