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Future Microbiol. 2010 Oct;5(10):1525-38. doi: 10.2217/fmb.10.122.

Salmonella genomic islands and antibiotic resistance in Salmonella enterica.

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School of Molecular Bioscience, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.


Antibiotic resistance in several Salmonella enterica serovars that cause gastrointestinal disease in humans is due to a set of related genomic islands carrying a class 1 integron, which carries the resistance genes. Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1), the first island of this type, was found in S. enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 isolates, which are resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, streptomycin, spectinomycin, sulfonamides and tetracycline. Several Salmonella serovars and Proteus mirablis have since been shown to harbor SGI1 or related islands carrying various sets of resistance genes and some distinct groups have emerged. SGI1 is an integrative mobilizable element and can be transferred experimentally into Escherichia coli. However, within serovars, isolates recovered from different parts of the world appear to be clonal, indicating that SGI1 movement may be rare. Potential reservoirs in food-producing animals or in ornamental fish have been identified for some serovars.

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