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Comput Aided Surg. 2010;15(4-6):104-9. doi: 10.3109/10929088.2010.530793.

Comparison of three optical tracking systems in a complex navigation scenario.

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Institute for Surgical Technology and Biomechanics, ARTORG Center for Biomedical Engineering Research, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.


Three-dimensional rotational X-ray imaging with the SIREMOBIL Iso-C3D (Siemens AG, Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany) has become a well-established intra-operative imaging modality. In combination with a tracking system, the Iso-C3D provides inherently registered image volumes ready for direct navigation. This is achieved by means of a pre-calibration procedure. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the tracking system used on the overall navigation accuracy of direct Iso-C3D navigation. Three models of tracking system were used in the study: Two Optotrak 3020s, a Polaris P4 and a Polaris Spectra system, with both Polaris systems being in the passive operation mode. The evaluation was carried out at two different sites using two Iso-C3D devices. To measure the navigation accuracy, a number of phantom experiments were conducted using an acrylic phantom equipped with titanium spheres. After scanning, a special pointer was used to pinpoint these markers. The difference between the digitized and navigated positions served as the accuracy measure. Up to 20 phantom scans were performed for each tracking system. The average accuracy measured was 0.86 mm and 0.96 mm for the two Optotrak 3020 systems, 1.15 mm for the Polaris P4, and 1.04 mm for the Polaris Spectra system. For the Polaris systems a higher maximal error was found, but all three systems yielded similar minimal errors. On average, all tracking systems used in this study could deliver similar navigation accuracy. The passive Polaris system showed – as expected – higher maximal errors; however, depending on the application constraints, this might be negligible.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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