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J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Dec 8;58(23):12149-56. doi: 10.1021/jf103306k. Epub 2010 Nov 10.

Growth inhibitory, antiandrogenic, and pro-apoptotic effects of punicic acid in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells.

Author information

1
Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut Armand-Frappier, Université du Québec, Laval, Québec H7 V1B7, Canada.

Abstract

Prostate cancer is a commonly diagnosed cancer in men, and dietary chemoprevention by pomegranate (Punica granatum) extracts has shown noticeable benefits. In this study, we investigated the growth inhibitory, antiandrogenic, and pro-apoptotic effects of 13 pure compounds found in the pomegranate in androgen-dependent LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. Cells deprived of steroid hormones were exposed to increasing concentrations (1-100 μM) of pomegranate compounds in the presence of 0.1 nM dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and the inhibition of cell growth was measured by WST-1 colorimetric assay after a 4 day exposure. Four compounds, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), delphinidin chloride, kaempferol, and punicic acid, were found to inhibit DHT-stimulated cell growth at concentrations of 10 μM and above. These four pomegranate compounds inhibited DHT-stimulated androgen receptor nuclear accumulation and the expression of the androgen receptor-dependent genes prostate specific antigen and steroid 5α-reductase type 1 at concentrations ≥10 μM. We determined the possible contribution of apoptosis to the observed decrease in cell growth and found that three compounds, EGCG, kaempferol, and, in particular, punicic acid, induced DNA fragmentation after a 24 h treatment, at concentrations in the 10-100 μM range. Punicic acid, an important fatty acid in pomegranate seeds, was further found to induce intrinsic apoptosis via a caspase-dependent pathway. In conclusion, punicic acid, the main constituent of pomegranate seed (70-80%), exhibited potent growth inhibitory activities in androgen-dependent LNCaP cells, which appear to be mediated by both antiandrogenic and pro-apoptotic mechanisms.

PMID:
21067181
DOI:
10.1021/jf103306k
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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