Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Mol Brain. 2010 Nov 8;3:34. doi: 10.1186/1756-6606-3-34.

Sex- and brain region-specific acceleration of β-amyloidogenesis following behavioral stress in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

Author information

1
Center for Dementia Research, Nathan Kline Institute, Orangeburg, New York 10962, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

It is hypothesized that complex interactions between multiple environmental factors and genetic factors are implicated in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Importantly, recent evidence reveals that expression and activity levels of the β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), which initiates amyloid-β (Aβ) production, are elevated in AD brains. In this study, we investigated a molecular mechanism by which sex and stress interactions may accelerate β-amyloidogenesis and contribute to sporadic AD.

RESULTS:

We applied 5-day restraint stress (6 h/day) to the male and female 5XFAD transgenic mouse model of AD at the pre-pathological stage of disease, which showed little amyloid deposition under non-stressed control conditions. Exposure to the relatively brief behavioral stress increased levels of neurotoxic Aβ42 peptides, the β-secretase-cleaved C-terminal fragment (C99) and plaque burden in the hippocampus of female 5XFAD mice but not in that of male 5XFAD mice. In contrast, significant changes in the parameters of β-amyloidosis were not observed in the cerebral cortex of stressed male or female 5XFAD mice. We found that this sex- and brain region-specific acceleration of β-amyloidosis was accounted for by elevations in BACE1 and APP levels in response to adverse stress. Furthermore, not only BACE1 mRNA but also phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α (a proposed mediator of the post-transcriptional upregulation of BACE1) was elevated in the hippocampus of stressed female 5XFAD mice.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our results suggest that the higher prevalence of sporadic AD in women may be attributable to the vulnerability of female brains (especially, the hippocampus) to stressful events, which alter APP processing to favor the β-amyloidogenesis through the transcriptional and translational upregulation of BACE1 combined with elevations in its substrate APP.

PMID:
21059265
PMCID:
PMC2988063
DOI:
10.1186/1756-6606-3-34
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for BioMed Central Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center