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Appl Opt. 1995 Aug 1;34(22):4848-56. doi: 10.1364/AO.34.004848.

Characterization of the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics x-ray telescope: preflight calibration and ray tracing.


The x-ray properties of multinested thin-foil mirror x-ray telescopes (XRT's) on board ASCA, the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics, were fully evaluated with an x-ray pencil beam.Scanning over the telescope aperture of 35 cm in diameter with an x-ray pencil beam, we found the effective area of a set of XRT's to be 325, 200, and 113 cm(2) at energies of 1.5, 4.5, and 8.0 keV, respectively. We derive the point-spread functions (PSF's) of the XRT's by measuring the image profile at the focal plane with an x-ray CCD. The PSF is found to exhibit a sharp core concentrated within 30 arcsec and a broad wing extended to 3 arcmin in half-power diameter. We also evaluate the contribution of stray light, which is caused by the single reflection of x rays by primary or secondary mirrors and by the backside reflection of the mirrors. To obtain the characteristics of the XRT in the energy region of 0.5-10.0 keV, incorporated with the measurements at discrete energies, we develop a ray-tracing method with the telescope design parameter, the PSF, and optical constants. In particular, we obtain the optical constants around the gold-atom M shell (Au-M) absorption-edge energies by measuring the reflectivity of our mirror sample, with monochromatized x-rays in the energy range of 2.0-3.5 keV from synchrotron radiation. Taking into account the PSF's and optical constants, we find that our ray-tracing program can reproduce all these XRT performances.

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