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Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2011 Jan;18(1):89-94. doi: 10.1128/CVI.00317-10. Epub 2010 Nov 3.

Relationship between serotypes, age, and clinical presentation of invasive pneumococcal disease in Madrid, Spain, after introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine into the vaccination calendar.

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Microbiology Department, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, c/ Martín Lagos s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain.


To assess invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) clinical presentations and relationships with age and serotype in hospitalized children (<15 years) after PCV7 implementation in Madrid, Spain, a prospective 2-year (May 2007 to April 2009) laboratory-confirmed (culture and/or PCR) IPD surveillance study was performed (22 hospitals). All isolates (for serotyping) and culture-negative pleural/cerebrospinal fluids were sent to the reference laboratory for pneumolysin (ply) and autolysin (lyt) gene PCR analysis. A total of 330 IPDs were identified: 263 (79.7%) confirmed by culture and 67 (20.3%) confirmed by PCR. IPD distribution by age (months) was as follows: 23.6% (<12), 15.8% (12 to 23), 15.5% (24 to 35), 22.4% (36 to 59), and 22.7% (>59). Distribution by clinical presentation was as follows: 34.5% bacteremic pneumonia, 30.3% pediatric parapneumonic empyema (PPE), 13.6% meningitis, 13.3% primary bacteremia, and 8.2% others. Meningitis and primary bacteremia were the most frequent IPDs in children <12 months old, and bacteremic pneumonia and PPE were most frequent in those >36 months old. Frequencies of IPD-associated serotypes were as follows: 1, 26.1%; 19A, 18.8%; 5, 15.5%; 7F, 8.5%; 3, 3.9%; nontypeable/other 30 serotypes, 27.3%. Serotype 1 was linked to respiratory-associated IPD (38.6% in bacteremic pneumonia and 38.0% in PPE) and children of >36 months (51.4% for 36 to 59 months and 40.0% for >59 months), while serotype 19A was linked to nonrespiratory IPDs (31.1% in meningitis, 27.3% in primary bacteremia, and 51.9% in others) and children of <24 months (35.9% for children of <12 months and 36.5% for those 12 to 23 months old), with high nonsusceptibility rates for penicillin, cefotaxime, and erythromycin. After PCV7 implementation, non-PCV7 serotypes caused 95.5% of IPDs. The new 13-valent conjugate vaccine would provide 79.1% coverage of serotypes responsible for IPDs in this series.

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