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J Cardiovasc Transl Res. 2010 Dec;3(6):600-3. doi: 10.1007/s12265-010-9225-3. Epub 2010 Oct 29.

Past, present, and future regulatory aspects of ventricular assist devices.

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Center for Devices and Radiological Health, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Silver Spring, MD 20993, USA.


The development of ventricular assist devices (VADs) for the treatment of heart failure has been ongoing since the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) initiated the artificial heart program in 1964. The primary goal was to develop VADs and total artificial hearts for both temporary (short-term) and long-term use. Due to a small target population and the inability to blind patients and clinicians, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recognized the challenges of conducting trials with these invasive devices. In an effort to address those challenges, FDA has accepted a variety of clinical trial designs to collect the data required to evaluate safety and effectiveness data in different patient groups. This article will provide a detailed discussion of the past, present, and future FDA regulatory considerations for VADs.

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