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Cancer Res. 2010 Nov 15;70(22):9031-40. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-0699. Epub 2010 Nov 2.

Intranodal vaccination with naked antigen-encoding RNA elicits potent prophylactic and therapeutic antitumoral immunity.

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Center for Translational Oncology and Immunology (TRON), Mainz, Germany.


Although naked antigen-encoding RNA has entered clinical testing, basic knowledge on how to apply this promising novel vaccine format is still pending. By comparing different administration routes, we observed surprisingly potent antigen-specific T-cell immunity upon intranodal injection of naked antigen-encoding RNA. RNA was selectively uptaken by resident dendritic cells, propagated a T-cell attracting and stimulatory intralymphatic milieu, and led to efficient expansion of antigen-specific CD8+ as well as CD4+ T cells. By intranodal treatment of mice with repeated cycles of RNA, we achieved de novo priming of naïve T cells, which became potent cytolytic effectors capable of homing to primary and secondary lymphatic tissues as well as memory T cells. In tumor-bearing mice intralymphatic RNA vaccination elicited protective and therapeutic antitumor immune responses, resulting in a remarkable survival benefit as compared with other treatment regimens. This is the first report of strong systemic antigen-specific Th1-type immunity and cancer cure achieved with naked antigen-encoding RNA in preclinical animal models.

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