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J Clin Invest. 2010 Dec;120(12):4303-15. doi: 10.1172/JCI43556.

Geminin deletion from hematopoietic cells causes anemia and thrombocytosis in mice.

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Feinberg Cardiovascular Research Institute, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.


HSCs maintain the circulating blood cell population. Defects in the orderly pattern of hematopoietic cell division and differentiation can lead to leukemia, myeloproliferative disorders, or marrow failure; however, the factors that control this pattern are incompletely understood. Geminin is an unstable regulatory protein that regulates the extent of DNA replication and is thought to coordinate cell division with cell differentiation. Here, we set out to determine the function of Geminin in hematopoiesis by deleting the Geminin gene (Gmnn) from mouse bone marrow cells. This severely perturbed the pattern of blood cell production in all 3 hematopoietic lineages (erythrocyte, megakaryocyte, and leukocyte). Red cell production was virtually abolished, while megakaryocyte production was greatly enhanced. Leukocyte production transiently decreased and then recovered. Stem and progenitor cell numbers were preserved, and Gmnn(–/–) HSCs successfully reconstituted hematopoiesis in irradiated mice. CD34(+) Gmnn(–/–) leukocyte precursors displayed DNA overreplication and formed extremely small granulocyte and monocyte colonies in methylcellulose. While cultured Gmnn(–/–) mega-karyocyte-erythrocyte precursors did not form erythroid colonies, they did form greater than normal numbers of megakaryocyte colonies. Gmnn(–/–) megakaryocytes and erythroblasts had normal DNA content. These data led us to postulate that Geminin regulates the relative production of erythrocytes and megakaryocytes from megakaryocyte-erythrocyte precursors by a replication-independent mechanism.

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