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J Immunol. 2010 Dec 1;185(11):6866-75. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1001037. Epub 2010 Nov 1.

The crucial role of GATA-1 in CCR3 gene transcription: modulated balance by multiple GATA elements in the CCR3 regulatory region.

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Division of Molecular and Life Sciences, College of Science and Technology, Hanyang University, Ansan, South Korea.


GATA-1, a zinc finger-containing transcription factor, regulates not only the differentiation of eosinophils but also the expression of many eosinophil-specific genes. In the current study, we dissected CCR3 gene expression at the molecular level using several cell types that express varying levels of GATA-1 and CCR3. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that GATA-1 preferentially bound to sequences in both exon 1 and its proximal intron 1. A reporter plasmid assay showed that constructs harboring exon 1 and/or intron 1 sequences retained transactivation activity, which was essentially proportional to cellular levels of endogenous GATA-1. Introduction of a dominant-negative GATA-1 or small interfering RNA of GATA-1 resulted in a decrease in transcription activity of the CCR3 reporter. Both point mutation and EMSA analyses demonstrated that although GATA-1 bound to virtually all seven putative GATA elements present in exon 1-intron 1, the first GATA site in exon 1 exhibited the highest binding affinity for GATA-1 and was solely responsible for GATA-1-mediated transactivation. The fourth and fifth GATA sites in exon 1, which were postulated previously to be a canonical double-GATA site for GATA-1-mediated transcription of eosinophil-specific genes, appeared to play an inhibitory role in transactivation, albeit with a high affinity for GATA-1. Furthermore, mutation of the seventh GATA site (present in intron 1) increased transcription, suggesting an inhibitory role. These data suggest that GATA-1 controls CCR3 transcription by interacting dynamically with the multiple GATA sites in the regulatory region of the CCR3 gene.

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