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Am J Cardiol. 2010 Dec 1;106(11):1606-8. doi: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2010.07.039. Epub 2010 Sep 21.

Circulating levels of endothelial progenitor cell mobilizing factors in the metabolic syndrome.

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  • 1Laboratory for Atherosclerosis and Metabolic Research, University of California Davis Medical Center and the VA Medical Center, Sacramento, California, USA.


Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are an emerging biomarker of vascular health. However, there are few data on the biology and mobilizing factors of EPCs in metabolic syndrome (MS). The aim of this study was to assay EPC mobilizing factors, including granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, stem cell factor/c-kit ligand (SCF), vascular endothelial growth factor, and stromal cell-derived factor-1 levels, in patients with MS (n = 36) and age- and gender-matched controls (n = 38). There was a significant reduction of 83% in granulocyte colony-stimulating factor levels in patients with MS. Also, there were decreases in SCF and SCF soluble receptor levels. However, there was no significant difference in stromal cell-derived factor-1 levels, and paradoxically, vascular endothelial growth factor levels were increased, consistent with resistance. In conclusion, in addition to progenitor cell exhaustion as a mechanism for the decrease in EPCs in patients with MS, they also have a mobilization defect, as manifested by decreased levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and SCF, resulting in a decrease in EPCs.

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