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J AAPOS. 2010 Oct;14(5):425-31. doi: 10.1016/j.jaapos.2010.07.005.

Thyroid eye disease: honing your skills to improve outcomes.

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Children's Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.


Thyroid eye disease affects the eyelids, orbital compartment, and extraocular muscles, resulting in a highly variable degree of chemosis and enlargement of the preorbital fat pads, eyelid retraction, proptosis, restrictive strabismus, torticollis, and, rarely, compressive or congestive optic neuropathy. Although most patients with thyroid eye disease are best treated conservatively, those more severely affected may benefit from orbital decompression, strabismus surgery, or eyelid retraction repair after stabilization has occurred. Botulinum A toxin, high-dose intravenous corticosteroids, and radiation treatment are therapeutic options in select cases. Compressive or congestive optic neuropathy and severe corneal exposure warrant consideration of surgical intervention on an urgent basis without waiting for stabilization. Epidemiology and risks and benefits of high-dose steroids and radiation therapy are reviewed along with recommendations to improve conservative as well as surgical management of this disease. Strategies to manage strabismus and optimize outcomes are provided.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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