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J Child Adolesc Subst Abuse. 2010;19(4):309-323.

Alcohol Use Disorders and Depression: Protective Factors in the Development of Unique Versus Comorbid Outcomes.

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National Research Institute, Boys Town.


Protective factors for young adult alcohol use disorders, depression, and comorbid alcohol use disorders and depression were examined. Participants were recruited from all fifth-grade students attending 18 Seattle elementary schools. Of the 1,053 students eligible, 808 (77%) agreed to participate. Youth were surveyed when they were 10 years-old in 1985 and followed to age 21 years years in 1996 (95% retention). Protective factors were measured at age 14 years years. Young adult disorders were assessed with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Alcohol refusal skills, academic skills, school and family bonding, parental rewards, school rewards, and family cohesion at age 14 years years were associated with decreased risk for comorbidity at age 21 years years.

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