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Mol Membr Biol. 2010 Oct;27(7):247-59. doi: 10.3109/09687688.2010.522203.

Interaction of nanoparticles and cell-penetrating peptides with skin for transdermal drug delivery.

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College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee, Florida 32307, USA.


Topical or transdermal drug delivery is challenging because the skin acts as a natural and protective barrier. Therefore, several methods have been examined to increase the permeation of therapeutic molecules into and through the skin. One approach is to use the nanoparticulate delivery system. Starting with liposomes and other vesicular systems, several other types of nanosized drug carriers have been developed such as solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, polymer-based nanoparticles and magnetic nanoparticles for dermatological applications. This review article discusses how different particulate systems can interact and penetrate into the skin barrier. In this review, the effectiveness of nanoparticles, as well as possible mode of actions of nanoparticles, is presented. In addition to nanoparticles, cell-penetrating peptide (CPP)-mediated drug delivery into the skin and the possible mechanism of CPP-derived delivery into the skin is discussed. Lastly, the effectiveness and possible mechanism of CPP-modified nanocarriers into the skin are addressed.

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