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J Proteome Res. 2010 Dec 3;9(12):6091-100. doi: 10.1021/pr100904q. Epub 2010 Nov 11.

Advances in proximal fluid proteomics for disease biomarker discovery.

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Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States.


Although serum/plasma has been the preferred source for identification of disease biomarkers, these efforts have been met with little success, in large part due the relatively small number of highly abundant proteins that render the reliable detection of low abundant disease-related proteins challenging due to the expansive dynamic range of concentration of proteins in this sample. Proximal fluid, the fluid derived from the extracellular milieu of tissues, contains a large repertoire of shed and secreted proteins that are likely to be present at higher concentrations relative to plasma/serum. It is hypothesized that many, if not all, proximal fluid proteins exchange with peripheral circulation, which has provided significant motivation for utilizing proximal fluids as a primary sample source for protein biomarker discovery. The present review highlights recent advances in proximal fluid proteomics, including the various protocols utilized to harvest proximal fluids along with detailing the results from mass spectrometry- and antibody-based analyses.

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