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Br J Surg. 2011 Jan;98(1):29-36. doi: 10.1002/bjs.7293.

Systematic review and meta-analysis of intraperitoneal local anaesthetic for pain reduction after laparoscopic gastric procedures.

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Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.



With the advent of minimally invasive gastric surgery, visceral nociception has become an important area of investigation as a potential cause of postoperative pain. A systematic review and meta-analysis was carried out to investigate the clinical effects of intraperitoneal local anaesthetic (IPLA) in laparoscopic gastric procedures.


Comprehensive searches were conducted independently without language restriction. Studies were identified from the following databases from inception to February 2010: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase and CINAHL. Relevant meeting abstracts and reference lists were searched manually. Appropriate methodology according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement was adhered to.


Five randomized controlled trials in laparoscopic gastric procedures were identified for review. There was no significant heterogeneity between the trials (χ(2) = 10·27, 10 d.f., P = 0·42, I(2) = 3 per cent). Based on meta-analysis of trials, there appeared to be reduced abdominal pain intensity (overall mean difference in pain score -1·64, 95 per cent confidence interval (c.i.) -2·09 to -1·19; P < 0·001), incidence of shoulder tip pain (overall odds ratio 0·15, 95 per cent c.i. 0·05 to 0·44; P < 0·001) and opioid use (overall mean difference -3·23, -4·81 to -1·66; P < 0·001).


There is evidence in favour of IPLA in laparoscopic gastric procedures for reduction of abdominal pain intensity, incidence of shoulder pain and postoperative opioid consumption.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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