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Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2010 Nov;5(6):463-6. doi: 10.1097/COH.0b013e32833ed177.

What are biomarkers?

Author information

1
Division of Clinical Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

This article provides working definitions and a conceptual framework to understand the roles of biomarkers in clinical research.

RECENT FINDINGS:

The definitions of the terms discussed in this article--medical signs, symptoms, biomarkers, surrogate endpoints, clinical endpoints, validation--are still under discussion, as are their relationships to each other, but broad consensus has developed in the past decade and a half about the necessity of distinguishing between, in particular, surrogate and clinical endpoints.

SUMMARY:

This article outlines the major definitions of the key terms in this field and considers select cases in which misunderstandings about the terms led to flawed research conclusions.

PMID:
20978388
PMCID:
PMC3078627
DOI:
10.1097/COH.0b013e32833ed177
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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