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Pediatrics. 2010 Nov;126(5):e1081-7. doi: 10.1542/peds.2010-0976. Epub 2010 Oct 25.

Sleeping through the night: the consolidation of self-regulated sleep across the first year of life.

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Department of Psychology, College of Science, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand.



To investigate the consolidation of infants' self-regulated nocturnal sleep over the first year, to determine when infants first sleep through the night from 24:00 to 05:00 hours (criterion 1), for 8 hours (criterion 2), or between 22:00 and 06:00 hours (the family-congruent criterion 3).


This was a prospective longitudinal study with repeated measures. Parents of 75 typically developing infants completed sleep diaries for 6 days each month for 12 months. Accuracy of parent reports were assessed by using videosomnography.


The largest mean increase (504 minutes) in self-regulated sleep length occurred from 1 to 4 months. The survival function decreased most rapidly (indicating greatest probability of meeting criteria) for criterion 1 at 2 months, criterion 2 at 3 months, and criterion 3 at 4 months. A 50% probability of meeting criteria 1 and 2 occurred at 3 months and at 5 months for criterion 3. The hazard function identified 2 months (criteria 1 and 2) and 3 months (criterion 3) as the most likely ages for sleeping through the night. At 12 months, 11 infants did not meet criteria 1 or 2, whereas 21 failed to meet criterion 3.


The most rapid consolidation in infant sleep regulation occurs in the first 4 months. Most infants are sleeping through the night at 2 and 3 months, regardless of the criterion used. The most developmentally and socially valid criterion for sleeping through is from 22:00 to 0:600 hours. At 5 months, more than half of infants are sleeping concurrently with their parents.

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