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FASEB J. 2011 Feb;25(2):590-9. doi: 10.1096/fj.10-167304. Epub 2010 Oct 25.

Expression of GIV/Girdin, a metastasis-related protein, predicts patient survival in colon cancer.

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Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, George E. Palade Laboratories, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA 92093-0651, USA.


Metastasis accounts for the majority of cancer-related deaths. Accurate prediction of metastatic potential of tumors has been elusive, and the search for clinically useful markers continues. We previously reported that GIV/Girdin triggers tumor cell migration by virtue of a C-terminal guanine-nucleotide exchange factor motif that activates Gαi. Here we identify GIV as a metastasis-related protein whose full-length transcript (GIV-fl) is expressed exclusively in highly invasive colon, breast, and pancreatic carcinoma cells and not in their poorly invasive counterparts. A prospective, exploratory biomarker study conducted on a cohort of 56 patients with stage II colorectal cancer revealed a significant correlation between GIV-fl expression in tumor epithelium and shortened metastasis-free survival. Survival rate for patients with GIV-fl-positive tumors is significantly reduced compared with the patients with GIV-fl-negative tumors [P<0.0001; hazard ratio=0.076; CI=0.052-0.30 (95%)]. At the 5-yr mark, survival is 100% in the GIV-fl-negative group and 62 ± 9% (mean±SE; P=6×10(-5)) in the GIV-fl-positive group. Furthermore, GIV-fl expression predicts a risk of mortality independent of the microsatellite stability status, a well-established prognosticator of colorectal cancers. We conclude that GIV-fl is a novel metastasis-related protein and an independent adverse prognosticator that may serve as a useful adjunct to traditional staging strategies in colorectal carcinoma.

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