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Methods Mol Biol. 2011;691:69-82. doi: 10.1007/978-1-60761-849-2_4.

Histopathology procedures: from tissue sampling to histopathological evaluation.

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Disposition, Safety and Animal Research, Sanofi-Aventis R&D, Vitry-sur-Seine, France.


Histological procedures aim to provide good quality sections that can be used for a light microscopic evaluation of human or animal tissue changes in either spontaneous or induced diseases. Routinely, tissues are fixed with neutral formalin 10%, embedded in paraffin, and then manually sectioned with a microtome to obtain 4-5 μm-thick paraffin sections. Dewaxed sections are then stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) or can be used for other purposes (special stains, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, etc.). During this process, many steps and procedures are critical to ensure standard and interpretable sections. Key recomendations are given here to achieve this objective.

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