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J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2012 May;21(4):299-304. doi: 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2010.08.010. Epub 2010 Oct 25.

Stroke risk factors and outcomes among various Asian ethnic groups in Singapore.

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  • 1Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, National University Hospital, Singapore.


Data on interethnic differences in the Asian stroke population are limited. We evaluated the relationships among various cardiovascular risk factors, stroke subtypes, and outcomes in a multiethnic Singaporean population comprising consecutive ischemic stroke patients presenting to our tertiary center over a 1-year period. Strokes were classified based on criteria used in the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST). Functional independence at hospital discharge was defined as a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0-2. The ethnic distribution of the study population (n = 481; mean age, 64.1 ± 11.9 years) was 74% Chinese, 17% Malay, and 9% Indian. The prevalence of risk factors was similar in the 3 ethnic groups except for diabetes (Chinese, 39.8%; Malay, 67.5%; Indian, 52.3%; P < .001). Hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were the most common cardiovascular risk factors. Lacunar stroke was the most frequent stroke subtype (47.9%). Large-artery atherosclerotic infarctions were more prevalent in Indians (25.0%), whereas lacunar infarctions occured more frequently in Chinese (51.8%; P < .01). No differences in in-hospital mortality and functional independence at discharge were seen among the 3 ethnic groups. Despite the differences in risk factors and in stroke subtypes classified by location or underlying etiology, short-term outcome measures were similar in the 3 different Asian ethnicities in Singapore.

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