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J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2011 Jul;142(1):73-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2010.08.028. Epub 2010 Oct 20.

Left ventricular pacing lead insertion via the coronary sinus cardioplegia cannula: a novel method for temporary biventricular pacing during reoperative cardiac surgery.

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1
Department of Medicine, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Temporary biventricular pacing to treat low output states after cardiac surgery is an active area of investigation. Reoperative cases are not studied due to adhesions, which preclude left ventricular mobilization to place epicardial pacing wires. In such patients, inserting a temporary left ventricular lead via the coronary sinus cardioplegia cannula may allow for biventricular pacing. We developed a novel technique for intraoperative left ventricular lead placement.

METHODS:

Eight domestic pigs underwent median sternotomy and pericardiotomy. Temporary pacing wires were sewn to the right atrium and right ventricle. Complete heart block was induced by ethanol ablation of the atrioventricular node. A 13-French retrograde cardioplegia catheter was introduced via the right atrial free wall into the coronary sinus. A 6-French left ventricular pacing lead was inserted into the cardioplegia catheter and advanced into the coronary sinus during biventricular pacing until left ventricular capture was detected by electrocardiogram and arterial pressure monitoring. Left ventricular capture success rate and electrical performance were recorded during five placement attempts.

RESULTS:

Left ventricular capture was achieved on 80% of insertion attempts. Left ventricular capture without diaphragmatic pacing was achieved in 7 pigs. Lead tip locations were mostly in lateral and posterior basal coronary vein branches. There were no arrhythmias, bleeding, or perforation associated with lead insertion.

CONCLUSIONS:

Intraoperative biventricular pacing with a left ventricular pacing lead inserted via the coronary sinus cardioplegia cannula is feasible, using standard instrumentation and without requiring cardiac manipulation. This approach merits further study in patients undergoing reoperative cardiac surgery.

PMID:
20965517
PMCID:
PMC3432304
DOI:
10.1016/j.jtcvs.2010.08.028
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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