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Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2010 Oct;10(7):937-46. doi: 10.1586/erm.10.67.

Xpert(®) MTB/RIF for point-of-care diagnosis of TB in high-HIV burden, resource-limited countries: hype or hope?

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Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7435, USA.


Despite the identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as the cause of tuberculosis (TB) more than a century ago, diagnosing TB in resource-poor countries remains a challenge, especially in people living with HIV. In the past decade, important research investments have been made towards the development of new diagnostics for TB and the Xpert(®) MTB/RIF assay (Cepheid, CA, USA) has emerged as one of the most promising. In this article, we review the current knowledge on Xpert MTB/RIF, discuss the potential value of Xpert MTB/RIF as a point-of-care diagnostic for drug-sensitive and drug-resistant TB, and outline the potential indications for the assay in resource-limited, high-HIV burden settings. We also discuss key research questions that need to be addressed prior to possible large-scale implementation of the assay.

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