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J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Jan;96(1):159-67. doi: 10.1210/jc.2010-1642. Epub 2010 Oct 20.

Characteristics of adolescents and youth with recent-onset type 2 diabetes: the TODAY cohort at baseline.

Collaborators (214)

McKay S, Anderson B, Bush C, Gunn S, Haymond M, Holden H, Hwu K, Jones SM, McGirk, Schreiner B, Thamotharan S, Zarate M, Cuttler L, Abrams E, Casey T, Dahms W, Davis A, Haider A, Huestis S, Ievers-Landis C, Kaminski B, Koontz M, MacLeish S, McGuigan P, Narasimhan S, Rogers D, Geffner M, Barraza V, Chang N, Conrad B, Dreimane D, Estrada S, Fisher L, Fleury-Milfort E, Hernandez S, Hollen B, Kaufman F, Law E, Mansilla V, Miller D, Munoz C, Ortiz R, Sanchez J, Ward A, Wexler K, Xu YK, Yasuda P, Katz LL, Berkowitz R, Gralewski K, Johnson B, Kaplan J, Keating C, Lassiter C, Lipman T, McGinley G, McKnight H, Schwartzman B, Willi S, Arslanian S, Bacha F, Foster S, Galvin B, Hannon T, Kriska A, Libman I, Marcus M, Porter K, Songer T, Venditti E, Goland R, Cain R, Fennoy I, Gallagher D, Kringas P, Leibel N, Motaghedi R, Ng D, Ovalles M, Pellizzari M, Rapaport R, Robbins K, Seidman D, Siegel-Czarkowski L, Speiser P, Laffel L, Goebel-Fabbri A, Hall M, Higgins L, Malloy M, Milaszewski K, Orkin L, Rodriguez-Ventura A, Nathan D, Bissett L, Blumenthal K, Delahanty L, Goldman V, Goseco A, Larkin M, Levitsky L, McEachern R, Milaszewski K, Norman D, Nwosu B, Park-Bennett S, Richards D, Sherry N, Steiner B, Tollefsen S, Carnes S, Dempsher D, Flomo D, Kociela V, Whelan T, Wolff B, Weinstock R, Bowerman D, Bristol S, Bulger J, Hartsig J, Izquierdo R, Kearns J, Saletsky R, Trief P, Zeitler P, Abramson N, Bradhurst A, Celona-Jacobs N, Higgins J, Hull A, Kelsey M, Klingensmith G, Nadeau K, Witten T, Copeland K, Boss E, Brown R, Chadwick J, Chalmers L, Chernausek S, Macha C, Newgent R, Nordyke A, Olson D, Poulsen T, Pratt L, Preske J, Schanuel J, Smith J, Sternlof S, Swisher R, Lynch J, Amodei N, Barajas R, Cody C, Hale D, Hernandez J, Ibarra C, Morales E, Rivera S, Rupert G, Wauters A, White N, Arbelaez A, Jones J, Jones T, Sadler M, Tanner M, Timpson A, Welch R, Caprio S, Grey M, Guandalini C, Lavietes S, Mignosa M, Rose P, Syme A, Tamborlane W, Hirst K, Edelstein S, Feit P, Grover N, Long C, Pyle L, Linder B, Marcovina S, Chmielewski J, Ramirez M, Strylewicz G, Shepherd J, Fan B, Marquez L, Sherman M, Wang J, Mayer-Davis E, Liu Y, Nichols M, Wilfley D, Aldrich-Rasche D, Franklin K, Laughlin D, Leibach G, Massmann C, Mills M, O'Brien D, Patterson J, Tibbs T, Van Buren D, Vannucci A, Zhang P, Palmert M, Epstein L, Silverstein J.

Author information

University of Oklahoma College of Medicine, 1200 North Phillips, Suite 4500, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73104.



The Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) cohort represents the largest and best-characterized national sample of American youth with recent-onset type 2 diabetes.


The objective of the study was to describe the baseline characteristics of participants in the TODAY randomized clinical trial.


Participants were recruited over 4 yr at 15 clinical centers in the United States (n = 704) and enrolled, randomized, treated, and followed up 2-6 yr.


The study was conducted at pediatric diabetes care clinics and practices.


Eligible participants were aged 10-17 yr inclusive, diagnosed with type 2 diabetes for less than 2 yr and had a body mass index at the 85th percentile or greater.


After baseline data collection, participants were randomized to one of the following groups: 1) metformin alone, 2) metformin plus rosiglitazone, or 3) metformin plus a lifestyle program of weight management.


Baseline data presented include demographics, clinical/medical history, biochemical measurements, and clinical and biochemical abnormalities.


At baseline the cohort included the following: 64.9% were female; mean age was 14.0 yr; mean diabetes duration was 7.8 months; mean body mass index Z-score was 2.15; 89.4% had a family history of diabetes; 41.1% were Hispanic, 31.5% were non-Hispanic black; 38.8% were living with both biological parents; 41.5% had a household annual income of less than $25,000; 26.3% had a highest education level of parent/guardian less than a high school degree; 26.3% had a blood pressure at the 90th percentile or greater; 13.6% had a blood pressure at the 95th percentile or greater; 13.0% had microalbuminuria; 79.8% had a low high-density lipoprotein level; and 10.2% had high triglycerides.


The TODAY cohort is predominantly from racial/ethnic minority groups, with low socioeconomic status and a family history of diabetes. Clinical and biochemical abnormalities and comorbidities are prevalent within 2 yr of diagnosis. These findings contribute greatly to our understanding of American youth with type 2 diabetes.

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