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Br J Radiol. 2011 Mar;84(999):204-9. doi: 10.1259/bjr/53617758. Epub 2010 Oct 19.

Interventional management for complications following caesarean section.

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Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Medical Science, Konkuk University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.



This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of interventional management for various intractable complications following caesarean section.


Between August 2005 and September 2009, 18 consecutive women were referred to interventional radiology for treatment of complications developing after caesarean section. Complications included vaginal bleeding (n = 14), haemoperitoneum with abdominal wall haematoma (n = 2), caesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) (n = 1) and post-caesarean fluid collection (n = 1).


17 women underwent transcatheter arterial embolisation (TAE) with a variety of embolic materials, and two women underwent percutaneous drainage (PCD) for fluid collection and haemoperitoneum. 5 of the 14 women with vaginal bleeding had extravasation of contrast media on angiography; the other 9 had no visible bleeding foci. The two women with haemoperitoneum with abdominal wall haematoma had injury to the inferior epigastric artery from angiography. TAE and PCD were successfully performed in both women. The CSP was successfully managed and the serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) level finally normalised. Hysterectomy or dilatation and curretage was required in women with placenta accrete and undetectable bleeding foci.


Interventional management including TAE and PCD is effective and safe in controlling complications following caesarean section. Use of these procedures can help avoid high-risk surgery, but subsequent procedures including hysterectomy may be required in cases of placental abnormalities and undetectable bleeding foci.

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