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J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 2010;2010(41):197-9. doi: 10.1093/jncimonographs/lgq032.

The impact of surgery on ductal carcinoma in situ outcomes: the use of mastectomy.

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  • 1Department of Surgery and Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94115, USA.


Mastectomy has been the historical mainstay of treatment for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), but over time, there have been significant changes in its use for preinvasive breast cancer. Although there was an early reduction in mastectomy rates for DCIS with the introduction of breast-conserving surgery, in some groups, the rates of both mastectomy and contralateral mastectomy for DCIS have increased in recent years. Due to advances in breast cancer screening as well as improvements in breast reconstruction, mastectomy will continue to be an important and acceptable treatment option. Recurrence is rare following mastectomy for DCIS. Nevertheless, there remains a need to follow patients for in-breast, nodal, or contralateral breast events, which can occur long after the index DCIS has been treated. Since up to 70% of women with newly diagnosed DCIS have disease that can be managed with breast-conserving surgery, patient counseling is imperative to ensure the best use of this option for DCIS, given that mastectomy does not significantly impact survival in this setting.

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