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Orbit. 2010 Dec;29(6):307-12. doi: 10.3109/01676830.2010.510235. Epub 2010 Oct 18.

Radiological signs of periorbital trauma - the Singapore experience.

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Ophthalmology Department, National University Health System, Singapore.



To describe the radiological signs and demographic characteristics of patients who suffered facial trauma in South-East Asia.


This is a retrospective cross-sectional study of a 399 patients who presented with facial trauma over a 2-year period in a tertiary referral centre in South-East Asia. Patients with available CT scan films were included. Demographics, bony and soft tissue radiology characteristics were analyzed.


Male to female ratio was 320 (80%):79 (20%). Most of the facial trauma was due to Road Traffic Accident. Of 399 patients, 273 (68%) showed radiological signs of bone or soft tissue trauma. Of these 273 patients, left to right side involvement was 114 (41.7%) / 82 (30.03%), and 77 (28.2%) had bilateral involvement. Floor was the most involved wall (229[83.8%]) and the most involved rim was the inferior rim (164[60.07%]). There were 39 (14.2%) patients with blowout fracture. Bony nasolacrimal duct was broken in 56 (20.5%) patients. Optic canal fracture was found in 7 (2.5%) patients and it was associated with roof and superior rim fracture (P-values were 0.016, 0.046, respectively). Thirty-three (12.08%) patients had radiological signs of extraocular muscle involvement. Traumatic intracranial signs were associated with roof and superior rim fractures (Pā€‰<ā€‰0.001 for both).


Floor and inferior rim were the most affected orbital structures in facial trauma. We described radiological risk factors association with optic canal, NLD fracture and intracranial involvement. We described extraocular muscle morphological signs, which could alert to the possibility of orbital floor fracture in equivocal cases.

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