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Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2010 Aug;7(8):3298-312. doi: 10.3390/ijerph7083298. Epub 2010 Aug 24.

Toxicity of the herbicide atrazine: effects on lipid peroxidation and activities of antioxidant enzymes in the freshwater fish Channa punctatus (Bloch).

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Department of Applied Biology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.


The present study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity and effects of a commercial formulation of the herbicide atrazine (Rasayanzine) on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme system in the freshwater air breathing fish Channa punctatus. The 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h LC(50) of atrazine, calculated by probit analysis, were determined to be 77.091, 64.053, 49.100, 44.412 and 42.381 mg·L(-1), respectively, in a semi static system with significant difference (p < 0.05) in LC(10-90) values obtained for different times of exposure. In addition to concentration and time dependent decrease in mortality rate, stress signs in the form of behavioral changes were also observed in response to the test chemical. In fish exposed for 15 days to different sublethal concentrations of the herbicide (1/4 LC(50) = ∼10.600 mg·L(-1), 1/8 LC(50) = ∼5.300 mg·L(-1) and 1/10 LC(50) = ∼4.238 mg·L(-1)) induction of oxidative stress in the liver was evidence by increased lipid peroxidation levels. The antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) responded positively in a concentration dependent pattern, thus, suggesting the use of these antioxidants as potential biomarkers of toxicity associated with contaminations exposure in freshwater fishes.


C. punctatus; LC10–90; atrazine; environmental pollution; oxidative stress; toxicity

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