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Kidney Blood Press Res. 2010;33(5):383-92. doi: 10.1159/000320389. Epub 2010 Oct 14.

Gender differences in chronic kidney disease: underpinnings and therapeutic implications.

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Division of Renal Medicine, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Centre for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.


In nephrology, gender differences exist with regard to the epidemiology, evolution and prognosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In some cases, these differences run contrary to the general population trends. This review discusses such gender and sex disparities, including differing impact of traditional and novel risk factors, prescription patterns, differences in the responses to therapies, as well as hormonal factors, all of them potentially influencing propensity, progression and biochemical and psychological aspects of CKD. Through the integration of gender aspects in CKD research and management, we may be able not only to identify novel therapeutic targets but also improve existing treatment options.

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