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Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2010 Sep;11(3):205-15. doi: 10.1007/s11154-010-9151-3.

Clinical and molecular genetics of neonatal diabetes due to mutations in the insulin gene.

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Department of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, Aarhus University Hospital, Nørrebrogade 44, 8000, Aarhus C, Denmark.

Erratum in

  • Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2012 Mar;13(1):79-81.


Over the last decade our insight into the causes of neonatal diabetes has greatly expanded. Neonatal diabetes was once considered a variant of type 1 diabetes that presented early in life. Recent advances in our understanding of this disorder have established that neonatal diabetes is not an autoimmune disease, but rather is a monogenic form of diabetes resulting from mutations in a number of different genes encoding proteins that play a key role in the normal function of the pancreatic beta-cell. Moreover, a correct genetic diagnosis can affect treatment and clinical outcome. This is especially true for patients with mutations in the genes KCNJ11 or ABCC8 that encode the two protein subunits (Kir6.2 and SUR1, respectively) of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel. These patients can be treated with oral sulfonylurea drugs with better glycemic control and quality of life. Recently, mutations in the insulin gene (INS) itself have been identified as another cause of neonatal diabetes. In this article, we review the role of INS mutations in the pathophysiology of neonatal diabetes.

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