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J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2010 Nov;65(6):772-82. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbq069. Epub 2010 Oct 11.

Patterns of residential crowding among Hispanics in later life: immigration, assimilation, and housing market factors.

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Department of Gerontology, University of Massachusetts Boston, 100 Morrissey Blvd., Boston, MA 02125, USA.



We describe patterns of residential crowding among older Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites. We also examine hypotheses about the relationship of residential crowding with assimilation (language and duration of residence) and housing market characteristics.


We employ a multilevel research design, using data from the 2000 U.S. Census of Population. Hierarchical linear models are utilized to estimate the association between residential crowding and both individual and housing market factors.


Approximately one third of older Hispanics in metropolitan areas live in crowded housing compared with only one tenth of older non-Hispanic Whites. Foreign-born older persons report higher levels of crowding than U.S.-born older persons. Residential crowding differences between older Hispanics and non-Hispanics are not eliminated after controls are included. Older Hispanics who report better English language skills and a longer duration of residence in the United States live in less crowded housing. We do not find evidence for a relationship between crowding and residential segregation, but we find consistent evidence for an association between residential crowding and relative size of the Hispanic population.


The forces that shape household composition and access to housing among older Hispanics appear to result in higher levels of residential crowding for this population.

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