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Neuroimage. 2011 Feb 1;54(3):2226-36. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.10.003. Epub 2010 Oct 16.

Spatiotemporal tuning of brain activity and force performance.

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Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.


The spatial and temporal features of visual stimuli are either processed independently or are conflated in specific cells of visual cortex. Although spatial and temporal features of visual stimuli influence motor performance, it remains unclear how spatiotemporal information is processed beyond visual cortex in brain regions that control movement. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine how brain activity and force control are influenced by visual gain at a high visual feedback frequency of 6.4 Hz and a low visual feedback frequency of 0.4 Hz. At 6.4 Hz, increasing visual gain led to improved force performance and increased activity in classic areas of the visuomotor system-V5, IPL, SPL, PMv, SMA-proper, and M1. At 0.4 Hz, increasing gain also led to improved force performance. In addition to activation in M1/PMd and IPL in the visuomotor system, increasing visual gain at 0.4 Hz also corresponded with activity in the striatal-frontal circuit including DLPFC, ACC, and widespread activity in putamen, caudate, and SMA-proper. This study demonstrates that the frequency of visual feedback drives where in the brain visual gain mediated reductions in force error are regulated.

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