Send to

Choose Destination
Dev Biol. 2011 Jan 1;349(1):53-64. doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2010.10.004. Epub 2010 Oct 23.

Developmental ablation of Id1 and Id3 genes in the vasculature leads to postnatal cardiac phenotypes.

Author information

Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine, Cardiovascular Research Institute, UMDNJ, Newark, NJ 07107-1709, USA.


The Id1 and Id3 genes play major roles during cardiac development, despite their expression being confined to non-myocardial layers (endocardium-endothelium-epicardium). We previously described that Id1Id3 double knockout (dKO) mouse embryos die at mid-gestation from multiple cardiac defects, but early lethality precluded the studies of the roles of Id in the postnatal heart. To elucidate postnatal roles of Id genes, we ablated the Id3 gene and conditionally ablated the Id1 gene in the endothelium to generate conditional KO (cKO) embryos. We observed cardiac phenotypes at birth and at 6 months of age. Half of the Id cKO mice died at birth. Postnatal demise was associated with cardiac enlargement and defects in the ventricular septum, trabeculation and vasculature. Surviving Id cKO mice exhibited fibrotic vasculature, cardiac enlargement and decreased cardiac function. An abnormal vascular response was also observed in the healing of excisional skin wounds of Id cKO mice. Expression patterns of vascular, fibrotic and hypertrophic markers were altered in the Id cKO hearts, but addition of Insulin-Like Growth Factor binding protein-3 (IGFbp3) reversed gene expression profiles of vascular and fibrotic, but not hypertrophic markers. Thus, ablation of Id genes in the vasculature leads to distinct postnatal cardiac phenotypes. These findings provide important insights into the role/s of the endocardial network of the endothelial lineage in the development of cardiac disease, and highlight IGFbp3 as a potential link between Id and its vascular effectors.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center