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Cogn Neuropsychol. 2010 May;27(3):245-60. doi: 10.1080/02643294.2010.513967. Epub 2010 Oct 9.

Point and interval estimates of effect sizes for the case-controls design in neuropsychology: rationale, methods, implementations, and proposed reporting standards.

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School of Psychology, College of Life Sciences and Medicine, King's College, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.


It is increasingly common for group studies in neuropsychology to report effect sizes. In contrast this is rarely done in single-case studies (at least in those studies that employ a case-controls design). The present paper sets out the advantages of reporting effect sizes, derives suitable effect size indexes for use in single-case studies, and develops methods of supplementing point estimates of effect sizes with interval estimates. Computer programs that implement existing classical and Bayesian inferential methods for the single case (as developed by Crawford, Garthwaite, Howell, and colleagues) are upgraded to provide these point and interval estimates. The upgraded programs can be downloaded from

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