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Toxicol Lett. 2011 Jan 15;200(1-2):1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2010.09.020. Epub 2010 Oct 12.

¹H NMR-based metabolic profiling of naproxen-induced toxicity in rats.

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Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul 136-701, Republic of Korea.


The dose-dependent perturbations in urinary metabolite concentrations caused by naproxen toxicity were investigated using ¹H NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical analysis. Histopathologic evaluation of naproxen-induced acute gastrointestinal damage in rats demonstrated a significant dose-dependent effect. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) of ¹H NMR from rat urine revealed a dose-dependent metabolic shift between the vehicle-treated control rats and rats treated with low-dose (10 mg/kg body weight), moderate-dose (50 mg/kg), and high-dose (100 mg/kg) naproxen, coinciding with their gastric damage scores after naproxen administration. The resultant metabolic profiles demonstrate that the naproxen-induced gastric damage exhibited energy metabolism perturbations that elevated their urinary levels of citrate, cis-aconitate, creatine, and creatine phosphate. In addition, naproxen administration decreased choline level and increased betaine level, indicating that it depleted the main protective constituent of the gastric mucosa. Moreover, naproxen stimulated the decomposition of tryptophan into kynurenate, which inhibits fibroblast growth factor-1 and delays ulcer healing. These findings demonstrate that ¹H NMR-based urinary metabolic profiling can facilitate noninvasive and rapid diagnosis of drug side effects and is suitable for elucidating possible biological pathways perturbed by drug toxicity.

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