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Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan;39(Database issue):D606-11. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkq908. Epub 2010 Oct 6.

TADB: a web-based resource for Type 2 toxin-antitoxin loci in bacteria and archaea.

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Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism and School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030, PR China.


TADB ( is an integrated database that provides comprehensive information about Type 2 toxin-antitoxin (TA) loci, genetic features that are richly distributed throughout bacterial and archaeal genomes. Two-gene and much less frequently three-gene Type 2 TA loci code for cognate partners that have been hypothesized or demonstrated to play key roles in stress response, bacterial physiology and stabilization of horizontally acquired genetic elements. TADB offers a unique compilation of both predicted and experimentally supported Type 2 TA loci-relevant data and currently contains 10,753 Type 2 TA gene pairs identified within 1240 prokaryotic genomes, and details of over 240 directly relevant scientific publications. A broad range of similarity search, sequence alignment, genome context browser and phylogenetic tools are readily accessible via TADB. We propose that TADB will facilitate efficient, multi-disciplinary and innovative exploration of the bacteria and archaea Type 2 TA space, better defining presently recognized TA-related phenomena and potentially even leading to yet-to-be envisaged frontiers. The TADB database, envisaged as a one-stop shop for Type 2 TA-related research, will be maintained, updated and improved regularly to ensure its ongoing maximum utility to the research community.

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