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J Voice. 2012 Jan;26(1):e17-22. doi: 10.1016/j.jvoice.2010.07.004. Epub 2010 Oct 6.

Comparative analysis of the closed quotient for lip and tongue trills in relation to the sustained vowel /ε/.

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Department of Otolaryngology, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.


Various types of trill exercises have been used for a long time as a tool in the treatment and preparation of the voice. Although they are reported to produce vocal benefits in most subjects, their physiology has not yet been studied in depth. The aim of this study was to compare the mean and standard deviation of the closed quotient in exercises of lip and tongue trills with the sustained vowel /ε/ in opera singers. Ten professional classical (operatic) singers, reportedly in perfect laryngeal health, served as subjects for this study and underwent electroglottography. During the examination, the subjects were instructed to deliver the sustained vowel /ε/ and lip and tongue trills in a same preestablished frequency and intensity. The mean values and standard deviation of the closed quotient were obtained using the software developed for this purpose. The comparison of the results was intrasubjects; maximum intensities were compared only among them and so were minimum intensities. The means of closed quotient were statistically significant only in the strong intensities, and the lip trill was different from the tongue trill and the sustained vowel /ε/. The standard deviation of the closed quotient distinguished the sustained vowel /ε/ from the lip and tongue trills in the two intensities. We concluded that there is oscillation of the closed quotient during the exercises of tongue and lip trills, and the closed quotient is higher during the performance of exercises of the lip trill, when compared with the two other utterances, only in the strong intensities.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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