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Osteoporos Int. 2011 Jun;22(6):1765-71. doi: 10.1007/s00198-010-1392-1. Epub 2010 Oct 6.

Parity and risk of hip fracture in postmenopausal women.

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  • 1Division of Welfare and Health Promotion, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Peltolantie 3, 20720 Turku, Finland.


Hip fracture risk was assessed according to parity among postmenopausal women. Compared with nulliparous women, the fracture risk was lower in women with three or more births.


Parity was assessed for long-term prediction of hip fracture in postmenopausal women.


Postmenopausal women (n= 2,028) aged 45 or over with no history of hip fracture were studied. From 1978 to 1980, all of them had participated in a comprehensive health survey based on a nationally representative population sample. Emerging cases of hip fracture were identified from the National Hospital Discharge Register during a follow-up period extending up to 17 years.


The risk of hip fracture was lower among parous women compared with nulliparous women. The model adjusted for age showed a significant inverse association between parity as a continuous variable and the risk of hip fracture [RR = 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.61-0.90] per an increment of one standard deviation (2.4 births). Adjusted for age, menopausal age, level of education, body mass index, vitamin D status, alcohol consumption, smoking history, leisure time physical activity, and self-rated health, the relative risk was 0.50 (95% CI, 0.32-0.79) for women with three or more births and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.55-1.32) for women with one to two births as compared with nulliparous women.


Parity, three or more births in particular, predicts a lowered risk of hip fracture in the long run.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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