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Antioxid Redox Signal. 2011 Aug 1;15(3):781-94. doi: 10.1089/ars.2010.3393. Epub 2011 Mar 31.

Multiple functions of peroxiredoxins: peroxidases, sensors and regulators of the intracellular messenger H₂O₂, and protein chaperones.

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Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea.


Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are a family of peroxidases that reduce peroxides, with a conserved cysteine residue (the peroxidatic Cys) serving as the site of oxidation by peroxides. Peroxides oxidize the peroxidatic Cys-SH to Cys-SOH, which then reacts with another cysteine residue (typically the resolving Cys [C(R)]) to form a disulfide that is subsequently reduced by an appropriate electron donor. On the basis of the location or absence of the C(R), Prxs are classified into 2-Cys, atypical 2-Cys, and 1-Cys Prx subfamilies. In addition to their peroxidase activity, members of the 2-Cys Prx subfamily appear to serve as peroxide sensors for other proteins and as molecular chaperones. During catalysis, the peroxidatic Cys-SOH of 2-Cys Prxs is occasionally further oxidized to Cys-SO(2)H before disulfide formation, resulting in inactivation of peroxidase activity. This hyperoxidation, which is reversed by the ATP-dependent enzyme sulfiredoxin, modulates the sensor and chaperone functions of 2-Cys Prxs. The peroxidase activity of 2-Cys Prxs is extensively regulated via tyrosine and threonine phosphorylation, which allows modulation of the local concentration of the intracellular messenger H(2)O(2). Finally, 2-Cys Prxs interact with a variety of proteins, with such interaction having been shown to modulate the function of the binding partners in a reciprocal manner.

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