Send to

Choose Destination
Arch Toxicol. 2011 May;85(5):499-504. doi: 10.1007/s00204-010-0599-4. Epub 2010 Oct 2.

Acrolein, an I-κBα-independent downregulator of NF-κB activity, causes the decrease in nitric oxide production in human malignant keratinocytes.

Author information

Department of Clinical Pathology, Gwangju Health College University, Shinchang-Dong, Gwangsan-Gu, Gwangju, Korea.


Acrolein, a reactive electrophilic α, β-unsaturated aldehyde, is known to be an alkylating chemical carcinogen. The effect of acrolein on the activation of NF-κB in human malignant epidermal keratinocytes was examined to elucidate the molecular mechanism associated with this NF-κB-acrolein regulation and its consecutive sequence, nitric oxide (NO) production. Acrolein significantly downregulated the cellular NF-κB activity up to 60% compared with control as well as the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production in a dose response manner at concentrations of 10~30 μM. To investigate the regulatory mechanism associated with this NF-κB-acrolein downregulation, the relative level of phosphorylation of I-κBα (serines-32 and -36), a principle regulator of NF-κB activation, represented by acrolein, was quantified. Acrolein inhibited NF-κB activity without altering cellular levels of the phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated forms of I-κBα, implying that the downregulatory effect of acrolein on cellular NF-κB activity in human skin cells is an I-κBα-independent activation pathway. The results suggests that acrolein causes the decrease in nitric oxide production as an I-κBα-independent downregulator of NF-κB activity in human malignant keratinocytes, and acrolein-induced carcinogenesis may be associated with the modulation of cellular NF-κB activity.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Springer
Loading ...
Support Center