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Nat Immunol. 2010 Nov;11(11):1039-46. doi: 10.1038/ni.1942. Epub 2010 Oct 3.

Invariant NKT cells modulate the suppressive activity of IL-10-secreting neutrophils differentiated with serum amyloid A.

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Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Nuffield Department of Medicine, Medical Research Council Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.


Neutrophils are the main effector cells during inflammation, but they can also control excessive inflammatory responses by secreting anti-inflammatory cytokines. However, the mechanisms that modulate their plasticity remain unclear. We now show that systemic serum amyloid A 1 (SAA-1) controls the plasticity of neutrophil differentiation. SAA-1 not only induced anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 (IL-10)-secreting neutrophils but also promoted the interaction of invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells) with those neutrophils, a process that limited their suppressive activity by diminishing the production of IL-10 and enhancing the production of IL-12. Because SAA-1-producing melanomas promoted differentiation of IL-10-secreting neutrophils, harnessing iNKT cells could be useful therapeutically by decreasing the frequency of immunosuppressive neutrophils and restoring tumor-specific immune responses.

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