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Appl Opt. 1994 May 20;33(15):3296-307. doi: 10.1364/AO.33.003296.

Diode-laser absorption technique for simultaneous measurements of multiple gasdynamic parameters in high-speed flows containing water vapor.


A distributed-feedback InGaAsP diode laser, emitting near 1.38 µm, was used to acquire spectrally resolved absorption profiles of H(2)O lines in the ν(1) + ν(3) band at a repetition rate of 10 kHz. The profiles were used for simultaneous measurements of flow parameters in high-speed, one-dimensional (1-D) transient flows generated in a shock tube. Velocity was determined from the Doppler shift, which was measured with a pair of profiles simultaneously acquired at different angles with respect to the flow direction. Temperature was determined from the intensity ratio of two adjacent lines. Pressure and density were found from the fractional absorption. From these primary gasdynamic variables, the mass and momentum fluxes were determined. Experiments were conducted with three different gas mixtures in the shock tube: pure H(2)O at initial pressures lower than 3 Torr, up to 6% of H(2)O in O(2) at initial pressures below 120 Torr, and up to 8% of H(2)O in O(2) at initial pressures below 35 Torr. In the third case, pyrolysis of H(2) /O(2) behind incident shocks produced known yields of H(2)O. With all three mixtures, results compare well with 1-D shock calculations. This H(2)O diagnostic strategy shows promise for applications in both ground and flight testing.

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