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Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2011 Jan;30(1):128-34. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2010.09.013. Epub 2010 Sep 29.

Diet enriched with mushroom Phellinus linteus extract enhances the growth, innate immune response, and disease resistance of kelp grouper, Epinephelus bruneus against vibriosis.

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Marine Applied Microbes and Aquatic Organism Disease Control Lab, Department of Aquatic Biomedical Sciences, School of Marine Biomedical Sciences, College of Ocean Sciences and Marine and Environmental Research Institute, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756, South Korea.


The effect of diet supplemented with Phellinus linteus fed for 30 days was investigated in grouper Epinephelus bruneus challenged with Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio alginolyticus, and Vibrio carchariae; infected and treated fish had a significantly higher percent weight gain and feed efficiency. In groups fed with enriched diet and challenged with V. anguillarum and V. harveyi the mortality rate declined with a consequent rise in survival rate than with other pathogens. On the other hand, in groups fed with P. linteus enriched diet and challenged with V. anguillarum, V. harveyi, and V. alginolyticus the cellular and humoral immune responses, such as the alternative complement activity (ACH(50)), serum lysozyme activity, phagocytic activity (PA), phagocytic index (PI) significantly higher than in the control group. The respiratory bursts (RB), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were found significantly enhanced when the groups fed with enriched diet against V. anguillarum and V. harveyi. The results reveal that kelp grouper fed for 30 days with P. linteus enriched diet had higher cellular and humoral immune response and disease protection from vibriosis than the group fed on basal diet with the protection linked to stimulation of immune system.

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