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Mol Oral Microbiol. 2010 Oct;25(5):305-16. doi: 10.1111/j.2041-1014.2010.00582.x.

Review: Pathogen-induced inflammation at sites distant from oral infection: bacterial persistence and induction of cell-specific innate immune inflammatory pathways.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, Sections of Infectious Diseases, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA.

Abstract

A hallmark of infection with the gram-negative pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis is the induction of a chronic inflammatory response. P. gingivalis induces a local chronic inflammatory response that results in oral inflammatory bone destruction, which manifests as periodontal disease. In addition to chronic inflammation at the initial site of infection, mounting evidence has accumulated supporting a role for P. gingivalis-mediated periodontal disease as a risk factor for several systemic diseases including, diabetes, preterm birth, stroke, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. A growing number of in vitro studies have demonstrated that P. gingivalis infection stimulates cell activation commensurate with expected responses paralleling inflammatory atherosclerotic-type responses. Furthermore, various mouse models have been used to examine the ability of P. gingivalis to stimulate chronic inflammatory plaque accumulation and recent studies have pointed to a pivotal role for innate immune signaling via the Toll-like receptors in the chronic inflammation associated with P. gingivalis infection. In this review we discuss the pathogen and host cell specificity of these responses and discuss possible mechanisms by which this oral pathogen can induce and maintain a chronic state of inflammation at sites distant from oral infection.

PMID:
20883220
PMCID:
PMC2951292
DOI:
10.1111/j.2041-1014.2010.00582.x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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