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Br J Pharmacol. 2010 Oct;161(3):555-70. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00930.x.

The 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor, zileuton, suppresses prostaglandin biosynthesis by inhibition of arachidonic acid release in macrophages.

Author information

1
Department of Experimental Pharmacology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Zileuton is the only 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibitor marketed as a treatment for asthma, and is often utilized as a selective tool to evaluate the role of 5-LOX and leukotrienes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of zileuton on prostaglandin (PG) production in vitro and in vivo.

EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:

Peritoneal macrophages activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/interferon γ (LPS/IFNγ), J774 macrophages and human whole blood stimulated with LPS were used as in vitro models and rat carrageenan-induced pleurisy as an in vivo model.

KEY RESULTS:

Zileuton suppressed PG biosynthesis by interference with arachidonic acid (AA) release in macrophages. We found that zileuton significantly reduced PGE2 and 6-keto prostaglandin F1α (PGF1α) levels in activated mouse peritoneal macrophages and in J774 macrophages. This effect was not related to 5-LOX inhibition, because it was also observed in macrophages from 5-LOX knockout mice. Notably, zileuton inhibited PGE2 production in LPS-stimulated human whole blood and suppressed PGE2 and 6-keto PGF1α pleural levels in rat carrageenan-induced pleurisy. Interestingly, zileuton failed to inhibit the activity of microsomal PGE2 synthase1 and of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and did not affect COX-2 expression. However, zileuton significantly decreased AA release in macrophages accompanied by inhibition of phospholipase A2 translocation to cellular membranes.

CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATION:

Zileuton inhibited PG production by interfering at the level of AA release. Its mechanism of action, as well as its use as a pharmacological tool, in experimental models of inflammation should be reassessed.

PMID:
20880396
PMCID:
PMC2990155
DOI:
10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00930.x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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